Comma, International Journal on Archives. - 2003. - No 2-3.
Редактор Ненсі Барлет, Історична бібліотека Бентлі, Мічіганський університет.
ISSN 1680-1865

Орган Міжнародної ради архівів.
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Table of Contents



'How does society perceive archives?' This was the second theme of the cycle of reflection about 'archives and society' between 2001 and 2003, which was launched in Reykjavik in 2001. 237 national archivists, presidents of professional associations and experts from 83 countries gathered together at Pharo Palace, in Marseille, France, to debate tills question, on the occasion of the 36th CITRA from 12th to 15th November 2002. The trend for the number of countries represented to increase, already observed at Reykjavik, was sustained. There is every reason to be pleased about this, even if one can continue to regret the under-representation of certain regions in the world, notably Latin-America. The holding of the international conference of the Association of Latin-America Archivists in Rio de Janeiro the following week explains the almost total absence of their delegates.

Ibis issue comprises the texts presented by conference speakers, with some exceptions[1]; it seemed more suitable to publish the presentation by Alexander Chubariyan in the issue devoted to Russian archives (Comma 2002.3-4) and that by Lajos Kormendy in the issue about archives in central Europe (Comma 2003). The text by Chiyoko Ogawa will find its place in another volume, because it is principally concerned with electronic documents; the presentation by Alain Modoux has not been published, because the information, which it provided on the forthcoming world summit on the information society, was too connected to events in the immediate present. On the other hand, the CITRA bureau considered that the international enquiry by the American consultant Richard Barry on the perception of archives, which could not be the subject of a presentation at Marseille[2], deserved to be published because of the information which it contained. Indeed, the questionnaire was directly linked to the conference theme adopted by CITRA. The responses to the enquiry mostly come from the Anglo-Saxon world and they therefore complement the mainly French data presented during the first session.

The participants were invited to make the following paradox their point of departure: on the one hand the image of archives in public opinion remains archaic and imprecise, while on the other archives are fashionable, archivists intervene more and more actively in the management of traditional and electronic documents, and the demands of history and memory are expanding in a number of societies. Based on two axes, the conference programme was spread over four working sessions: the first two sessions were devoted to an analysis of the perception of archives by society and to social demands, and the following two to the presentation of strategies intended to promote the image of archives. Clearly, with such a short time available for tills enormous subject, it was only possible, by the use of examples, to put the terms of the problem, to provoke attendees to react, and to invite the profession to pursue the reflection.

The evaluation conducted after the conference of 2001 had demonstrated that the new formula adopted at Reykjavik had given satisfaction, and it was, therefore, maintained. The speaking time allocated to interventions was limited to ten minutes and a large place was given to discussion with participants, who thus actively contributed to a deepening of the perspectives opened up by the conference speakers.

Pierre Nora introduced the first session, devoted to the perception of archives by the general public, with a brilliant reflection on the place of archives in contemporary societies. He pondered on the contrast between the emotional and symbolic significance of archives and the relative indifference of society towards them. The fact that they remain irremediably linked to the idea of social uselessness seemed to him likely to explain this contrast.

Another paradox - the keen interest of the French in archives and their extreme ignorance, as much about the institutions which hold them as about their content and conditions of access - emerges from the first opinion poll in France about the French and archives, published by Le Monde in November 2001. The French are in agreement that archives are essential for society, but for different reasons, depending on whether they emphasise the point of view of the family, the citizen, or the historian.

The analysis of the place of the word 'archive' in the French press complemented the lessons of this survey. Carried out again after an interval of eight years, it brings to light the increasing use of the word and its derivatives, whose connotations were previously negative to the extent that some people wondered about the necessity of finding an alternative. The fashion for the term and concept of 'archives' could be an element in the strategy of promoting our profession. The wish, that similar studies in other languages should be carried out, was expressed during the discussion, and it became the subject of a professional resolution,3 which invites the ICA working group on terminology to organise comparative studies on the use of the word 'archives' and its derivatives in the media, in the context of their project for an encyclopaedia about archives.

The image of archives with the wider public therefore appears to be positive in France and one would have liked to be able to make comparisons. In spite of its imperfections, the international enquiry launched by Richard Barry includes interesting elements, which complement this data. It is not a scientific survey of the general public but an enquiry conducted among archive professionals, which therefore indicates public perceptions indirectly. It confirms the ignorance which most people have of archives and their value, and, when they have an opinion on the matter, their invariably incomplete vision of their interest. Indeed, it is not their political and civic usefulness which is perceived first, but rather their historical or genealogical interest. And it is without doubt here that the heart of the problem is to be found.

The perception of archives by public administration and record creators is a decisive element, since it conditions the allocation of resources at the disposal of archives. The statement of the director of archives in Ethiopia, that the management of documents is often considered a minor function requiring few competencies, can often be made elsewhere, especially in Arab countries. In Tunisia, decision-makers too often consider archives as an expensive service providing little revenue. It was observed during the discussion that the same situation applies in Africa where the oral tradition holds sway. In general, the too frequent attachment of archives to cultural services or their relegation far from the urban centres illustrates the lack of awareness of the diversity of services provided by archives and their political importance.

The second session focussed on the expansion of social demands and the emergence of a demand for archive services in new sectors of society. It threw into sharp relief the increasing gap between the reality of this demand and the perception of it by public administrators.

The participants at the round table on the diversification of the public and the demand for memory and history in different societies all underlined the continuing general increase of this demand, observed as much in the developed world as in developing countries and those in transition. To traditional researchers and family historians are henceforth added the demands of a wider public of ordinary citizens seeking to justify their rights; this phenomenon is particularly pronounced in municipal archive services and in countries in transition such as Ukraine and Argentina, where there are demands for justice and truth from the victims of the former totalitarian regimes. African societies characterised by orality are also experiencing this demand for memory, as is demonstrated by the continued importance of the griot. Numerous enquiries exist concerning the expectations of users and the public at large. The enquiry conducted by the CARBICA branch in 2002 indicates the increase in the number of visitors, which most countries in the Caribbean region have to face, as well as the difficulties which they have in responding to the needs of these new users.

Another incontestable fact is the appearance of a demand for archival services in new sectors, which manifests itself by an increase and a diversification of job opportunities. The examples of France and Germany prove the dynamism of the profession and its adaptability to contexts requiring new competencies. The development of information technologies has enabled the emergence of records managers in the public and private sectors and has prompted employers to recruit professionals qualified to assure the preservation and reliability of digital records. New fields of activity have appeared to satisfy the social demand for memory, with the creation of jobs in the voluntary sector and the cultural and educational domains. But the profession is not everywhere in a position to respond. The secretary of the National Council on Archives wondered about the attractiveness of the profession: while the number of jobs has increased in the United Kingdom in the last ten years, posts for archivists and records managers have become more and more difficult to fill, because of their low starting salaries and the lack of possibilities for advancement.

The two following sessions were devoted to strategies likely to remedy the persistent gap between the partial appreciation of archives and the reality of the services carried out, and the effects of this lack of understanding on the budgetary resources allocated to archives.

Strategies for promotion directed at public administrations and record creators were discussed during the third session. The promotion of archives is aimed at changing the stereotypical image, which the user has, or the archival ignorance, which the citizen has. The importance of their organisational positioning and their place in the urban landscape was underlined by Ramon Alberch and Moncef Fakhfakh; only their attachment to general and cross-organisational departments, rather than to cultural services, enables them to exercise sufficient authority and capacity to intervene in an effective manner. Resolution 2.2 was made in this sense.

Nevertheless, archives do not lack assets; the Tunisian representative outlined the political and administrative benefits flowing from a system of global archiving, which covers documents throughout their life cycle. Good governance, transparency, improvements in the quality of service provided by the administration to citizens are decisive arguments to emphasise and they can be readily understood. The increased awareness of record-creators should also be achieved through training activities (Benin). The need to give administrators and document creators training in the management of archives, at all levels of responsibility, in order to promote document or records management in the public sector, was the subject of a resolution.

One would have wished to know why archives obtain resources in some countries and are refused them in others. It is regrettable that is not possible to refer to indicators and statistical references on this matter, enabling comparisons to be made, which could be used in support of a national or local policy. This gap appeared with glaring clarity when the press dossier for the conference was being put together. A professional resolution invited the secretary general of ICA to have a questionnaire composed by an expert, with a view to gathering information about national archival systems.

Convinced by the positive effects of the awareness-raising campaigns in terms of budgets, some countries conduct ambitious communication policies aimed at the general public. Examples from China, North America and the United Kingdom were presented. The participants discussed strategies intended to improve the image of archives and to increase the visibility of their activities. In order to attract the attention of the public, some demonstrated their imagination but the solutions advocated are often very similar: exhibitions, promotional campaigns, radio programmes, etc. Innovative experiences of the active participation of the archivist in local life also feature in the annex to Richard Barry's enquiry. It was suggested, in the course of the discussion, that an International Archives Day should be organised every year, in order to promote the image of archives in public opinion, and the ICA was invited to take this forward by resolution 3.1.

The fourth session was devoted to the presentation of examples of promotional activity in relation to users. The civic and education function of archives is essential and they can be a factor in the struggle against social exclusion. A recommendation asked the national archives to establish, in partnership with education ministries, educational programmes or services in schools, in order to raise the awareness of young people, as future citizens, of the different functions of archives in society. It is also necessary to find ways of reaching non-users. The development of services catering for potential users should be encouraged, instead of archivists being content with their captive clientele of traditional users. For the last fifteen years or so, the activities proposed have diversified and contribute to an improvement of the brand image of archives; they are no longer only educational but cultural, and reach a wider public.

Users have become demanding and are the object of close attention, as illustrated by the example of Brazil. It was desirable to acknowledge the necessity of giving them training in the use of archives adapted to their needs and it was recommended that the ICA Committees on professional training and on communication and services to users (CPT and COU) should identify the needs of users at the national and international levels and develop directives enabling the provision of appropriate training for them. The latter committee was also invited to prepare a standard for access to archives, which clearly establishes what users have a right to expect in relation to services and facilities, in order to improve the quality of services provided.

Web sites are a preferred vehicle for the promotion of archives but their multiplication is not invariably accompanied by an optimal exploitation of their resources. The sites must be able to respond to the demands of research and popularisation at the same time. Nevertheless, the mediating role of the archivist remains necessary.

The other resolutions adopted by the delegates reflected preoccupations sometimes without a direct link to the theme of the conference. The presentations about Russia and Argentina provoked animated debates which are reflected in the resolutions: governments of countries in democratic transition were invited to begin or to pursue actively the process of liberalisation of access to archives; it was recommended that UNESCO and ICA should elaborate a programme for the identification and safe-keeping of police archives during periods of repression in Latin America and the governments concerned were invited to organise their transfer to the State Archives. The presentation of the Ethiopian delegate aroused anxiety about the conservation of ancient manuscripts in Africa and a resolution was adopted in this sense. It was also recommended that ICA should encourage the preservation of, and access to, documents collected by organisations defending human rights, thereby anticipating the discussions of the next CITRA.

Before the conference, a press dossier was sent to the French press and to correspondents of the main foreign newspapers in France. A lunch was organised for the press and the conference created some ripples in the media but, as was to be expected, the journalists were more interested in the situation of French archives than the conference theme. In addition, the State radio station France Culture broadcast a programme devoted to archives, which lasted an hour and a half, direct from Marseille. The participants in this programme included the president and secretary of CITRA, the director of the Archives of France and three conference speakers, selected by the journalist by virtue of the media interest in the subject of their intervention: Russian archives, oral tradition, and the demands of the victims of dictatorship in Argentina. One suspected that the theme of the perception of archives was on its own not sufficient to mobilise them. However, the theme of the 37th CITRA on 'Archives and the Rights of Man" should hold their attention. It is partly for this reason that the CITRA bureau agreed to this theme, in preference to the broader one initially adopted at Seville, namely 'archives at the service of society as a whole'.

Perrine Canavaggio
Secretary, CITRA

1 The texts have been published in the language chosen by the authors, in practice English, French or Spanish. It is possible to consult all the summaries, which were distributed at Marseilles, in English and French on the ICA web site.

2 The preliminary synthesis of this enquiry, sent to ICA on 12th November, the day before the conference opening, arrived too later to be presented.

3 As in 2001, a second category of *professional' resolutions was elaborated, to give the work of CITRA concrete form.


"Как архивы воспринимаются в обществе?" Обсуждение этого вопроса было начато в 2001 г. в Рейкьявике в рамках дискуссии "Архивы и общество", происходившей в 2001-2003 гг. По случаю 36 годовщины СИТРА с 12 по 15 ноября 2002 г. в Марселе, во дворце Фаро собрались 237 руководителей ассоциаций, экспертов и представителей национальных архивов из 83 стран для того, чтобы продолжить это обсуждение. Получила дальнейшее развитие проявившаяся уже в Рейкьявике тенденция увеличения количества представленных стран. Это отрадно даже, несмотря на то, что некоторые регионы, например Латинская Америка, практически не прислали своих делегатов. Проведение вскоре в Рио де Жанейро международной конференции латиноамериканских архивистов объяснило почти полное их отсутствие в Марселе.

В настоящем номере собраны выступления участников конференции за нижеследующими исключениями1: выступление Александра Чубарьяна было более уместно опубликовать в номере, посвященном российским архивам (Комма 2002. 3-4), а выступление Лайоша Корменди - в номере об архивах стран Центральной Европы (Комма 2003). Текст Шийоко Огава будет опубликован в другом номере, так как он полностью посвящен электронным документам; сообщение Алена Моду не помещено потому, что сообщаемая им информация о предстоящей встрече на высшем уровне по вопросам информационного общества тесно связана с происходящими сейчас событиями. В то же время редакция СИТРА посчитала, что международное исследование американского консультанта Ричарда Берри о восприятии архивов в обществе, которое не было представлено в Марселе2, заслуживает публикации из-за содержащейся в нем информации. Действительно, перечень вопросов этого исследования был прямо связан с рассматриваемой СИТРА проблематикой. Ответы на вопросы анкеты были получены в основном в англосаксонских странах, таким образом, они дополняют французские данные, полученные при первых опросах.

Отправной точкой для дискуссий было следующее парадоксальное утверждение: в общественном мнении восприятие архивов остается устаревшим и неточным, в то же время, архивы находятся в центре внимания, архивисты все более и более активно принимают участие в управлении документами, как на бумажных носителях, так и в электронном виде, наконец, во многих обществах растет востребованность истории и исторической памяти. Участники конференции занимались обсуждением этих двух проблем на протяжении четырех дней: первые два были посвящены анализу восприятия архивов в обществе и социальному заказу на архивы, в течение двух последующих дней обсуждалась стратегия, направленная на создание более благоприятного образа архивов. Очевидно, что за столь короткий срок можно было только поставить эти большие проблемы, были приведены примеры, определена терминология; участники конференции начали обсуждение и пригласили архивистов продолжить рассуждения на эти темы.

События, произошедшие после конференции 2001 г., подтвердили правильность выработанного в Рейкьявике нового регламента обсуждений, который был сохранен:

время для доклада было ограничено десятью минутами, что позволило развернуть широкую дискуссию, которая также во многом способствовала уяснению затронутых докладчиками вопросов.

Обсуждение первой темы, посвященной восприятию архивов широким общественным мнением, было начато блестящим выступлением Пьера Нора о месте архивов в современном обществе. Он остановился на противоречии между важным и символическим значением архивов с одной стороны и относительным безразличием к ним общества с другой. Объяснение этому, с его точки зрения, может заключаться в том, что архивы продолжают рассматриваться как социально бесполезные учреждения.

Другой парадокс - живой интерес французов к своим архивам и их крайняя неосведомленность, как о хранящих их учреждениях, так и об их содержании и условиях доступа к ним. Таковы результаты первого опроса мнения французов по поводу архивов, проведенного в ноябре 2001 г. во Франции газетой "Монд". Французы единодушно отводят архивам важную роль в обществе, но обосновывают это различными интересами: генеалогические розыски, защита гражданских прав, исторические исследования.

Данные опроса общественного мнения были дополнены анализом использования слова "архив" во французской прессе. Рассмотрение прессы за восьмилетний срок показало возрастающее использование этого слова и его производных, содержание которых раньше носило негативный оттенок до такой степени, что подчас возникала необходимость подыскивать другие слова. Распространенность термина и смысла слова "архив" могла бы стать частью пропаганды нашей профессии. Во время обсуждения этого вопроса была сформулирована желательность проведения подобных исследований по другим языкам. По этому поводу была принята профессиональная резолюция, которая рекомендовала рабочей группе МСА по терминологии приступить, в рамках проекта подготовки энциклопедии по архивам, к сравнительным исследованиям использования слова "архивы" и его производных в средствах массовой информации.

Во Франции образ архивов в широком общественном сознании кажется вполне позитивным, и было бы желательно получить материал для сравнения. Несмотря на свое несовершенство, предпринятый Ричардом Бери широкий международный опрос содержит интересные сведения и дополняет вышеуказанное исследование. Речь идет не о научном изучении широкого общественного мнения, а только об опросе в отношении сотрудников архивов, а значит, о косвенном восприятии архивов в обществе. Опрос подтвердил, что большинство людей не имеют представления об архивах и об их ценности, если они вообще сумели высказать свое мнение по данному вопросу; их видение всегда отражает имеющуюся у них заинтересованность. В действительности результаты опроса не говорят о политической или общественной значимости архивов, которая ценится больше всего, но только о предоставляемых ими возможностях в исторических или генеалогических исследованиях. Без сомнения, именно здесь скрыт корень проблемы.

Отношение со стороны властей и представителей производственной сферы является решающим моментом, т.к. оно обуславливает размер ассигнований, которыми располагают архивы. Директор Архива Эфиопии констатировал, что управление документами подчас рассматривается как малозначимая деятельность, не требующая специальных знаний и навыков. Возможно, эта констатация может относиться и к другим, в частности, арабским странам. В Тунисе большинство ответственных работников видят в архивах убыточные и мало рентабельные учреждения. В ходе дискуссии было отмечено, что такое же положение сложилось в Африке, где преобладающую роль играет устная традиция. В целом, слияние архивов с учреждениями культуры, их отдаленное расположение от центров городов доказывают недостаточное осознание предлагаемых архивами услуг и их политических возможностей.

Второй этап конференции был посвящен проблеме увеличения социального заказа в архивной сфере и появлению необходимости архивной деятельности в новых секторах общества. Появился огромный разрыв между реальным социальным заказом и прежним видением архивов со стороны властей.

Участники круглого стола по вопросам различных категорий пользователей и социального заказа на общественную и историческую память единодушно подчеркнули общее и постоянное увеличение этого заказа, которое наблюдается в развитых странах, развивающихся странах и странах переходного периода. К традиционным пользователям и исследователям генеалогии теперь добавляются запросы широкой общественности, простых граждан, которые хотят защитить свои права. В частности, такие запросы отмечены архивными службами городов, а также в странах переходного периода, например, в Украине и Аргентине, вместе с запросами юридического и справочного характера от жертв бывших тоталитарных режимов. Существуют многочисленные исследования о запросах пользователей архивов и граждан. Проведенный отделением КАРАБИКА опрос показал увеличение числа посетителей архивов, к чему большинство стран Карибского региона не было готово. Также опрос зафиксировал, с каким трудом архивы приспосабливаются к требованиям новых категорий пользователей.

Другим неоспоримым фактом является появление спроса на профессию архивиста в новых областях, что объясняется ростом требований к архивной работе и расширением предлагаемых ею услуг. Пример Франции и Германии доказывает, что профессия архивиста динамична и вполне приспосабливается к обстоятельствам, требующим новых знаний и навыков. Развитие информационных технологий породило "поисковых менеджеров", то есть специалистов по поиску информации, в государственных и частных секторах, что заставило работодателей искать квалифицированных профессионалов с тем, чтобы обеспечить надежное хранение электронных документов. Создание новых рабочих мест для архивистов в смежных секторах, в области культуры и образования привело к усилению спроса на профессию с целью удовлетворения общественного запроса на социальную память. Но не везде архивная отрасль может полностью удовлетворить эти запросы. Секретариат Национального Совета Архивов задался вопросом о привлекательности профессии архивиста: в то время как в Соединенном Королевстве за последние десять лет увеличился спрос на архивистов, стало значительно труднее найти специалиста для работы в архиве или на должность "поискового менеджера" из-за низкого начального уровня заработной платы и отсутствия возможности служебного продвижения.

Два последующих заседания были посвящены разработке стратегии по ликвидации существующего разрыва между неполным восприятием архивов и предоставляемых ими услугах с одной стороны, и, как следствие этого разрыва, выделяемым архивам бюджетным финансированием с другой.

На третьем заседании обсуждались действия, которые нужно предпринять перед органами государственной власти и перед товаропроизводителями, для улучшения положения архивов. Пропаганда архивов направлена на изменение того стереотипного восприятия, которое сложилось у пользователей по отношению к архивам, и на преодоление недостатка знаний о них у граждан. Рамон Альберх и Монсеф Факхфакх подчеркнули важность гармоничной постройки и удобного места расположения архивов в городской застройке. Не присоединение к учреждениям культуры, а близость к службам общего и смежного характера позволяет архивам пользоваться авторитетом и дает достаточные возможности эффективно участвовать в общественной жизни. Именно в этом смысле сформулирована резолюция 2.2.

Архивы обладают большими достоинствами: представитель Туниса рассказал о тех политических и управленческих выгодах, которые стали следствием системы всеобщей архивации, предполагающей сопровождение документов на протяжении всех этапов их существования. Решающими и вполне ясными для общества аргументами в пользу архивов являются удачное управление ими, гласность и улучшение качества предоставляемых ими гражданам услуг. Требуется управлять процессом усиления интереса к архивам со стороны товаропроизводителей (Бенин). Необходимость избавить чиновников и производителей документов от функции управления архивами на всех уровнях ответственности с тем, чтобы обеспечивать работой поисковых менеджеров в государственном секторе экономики стала предметом особой резолюции.

Было бы интересно узнать, почему в некоторых странах архивы располагают средствами, а в других странах им в них отказано. Очень жаль, что по этому вопросу не имеется статистических сведений и ссылок, позволивших провести сравнительный анализ и использовать их для поддержки деятельности архивов на общегосударственном или местном уровнях. Этот пробел ясно проявился, когда готовилась информация о работе конференции для прессы. Отдельной профессиональной резолюцией генеральному секретарю МСА предложено с помощью экспертов подготовить вопросник с целью собрать сведения по национальным архивным службам.

Убедившись в положительных результатах кампании, направленной на пропаганду архивов, в плане увеличения бюджетных ассигнований, в некоторых странах начали проводить активную информационную политику. Такими примерами являются Китай, Северная Америка и Великобритания. Участники конференции обсудили пути, направленные на улучшение образа архивов и на усиление их роли в обществе. Для привлечения внимания общественности часто используют идеи, доказывающие изобретательность их создателей, однако средства их реализации схожи: выставки, рекламные кампании, радиопередачи и т.д. В приложениях к опросу Ричарда Берри также указаны новые возможности по активизации участия архивистов в общественной жизни. С целью улучшения образа архивов в общественном мнении в ходе дискуссии было высказано пожелание ежегодно отмечать Международный день архивов, резолюция 3.1. предлагает МСА реализовать это решение.

Четвертое заседание было посвящено рассмотрению примеров активных действий архивов по отношению к использователям. Образовательная и гражданская функции архивов являются первостепенными, и могут помочь в их борьбе за более активную социальную роль. Отдельной рекомендацией конгресса Национальные архивы совместно с министерствами по делам образования призваны разработать программы или образовательные службы в школах для привлечения внимания молодых людей, будущих граждан, к архивам и их различным социальным функциям. Также следует найти способы заинтересовать новые категории граждан в работе архивов. Вместо того чтобы удовлетворяться уже завоеванными категориями традиционных посетителей архивов, необходимо ускорить развитие комплекса услуг для потенциальных пользователей. На протяжении последних пятнадцати лет деятельность архивов стала значительно разнообразнее, перестав носить только образовательный характер и являясь частью культуры, она способствует улучшению представления об архивах и затрагивает более широкие слои общества.

Пример Бразилии показывает, что пользователи архивов стали более взыскательными и требуют особого к себе отношения. Было выражено пожелание обеспечить посетителям подготовку, требуемую для использования архивов в соответствии с их нуждами, а Комитету МСА по профессиональному образованию и Комитету по обеспечению пользователей и архивным услугам предложено на национальном и международном уровнях определить требования пользователей и предпринять меры, позволяющие обеспечить им нужную подготовку. Комитету по обеспечению пользователей и архивным услугам также рекомендовано подготовить положение по допуску в архивы, в котором ясно изложить, какими правами пользуются исследователи в плане получения услуг и доступу к оборудованию с тем, чтобы повысить качество предоставляемого обслуживания.

Особую роль в пропаганде архивов играют веб-сайты в Интернете, но увеличение их количества не всегда сопровождается наилучшим использованием предоставляемых ими возможностей. Они должны одновременно соответствовать требованиям исследований и требованиям популяризации архивов. Продолжает, тем не менее, оставаться необходимой посредническая функция архивиста.

Остальные принятые на конгрессе резолюции отразили озабоченность делегатов по вопросам, часто не связанным напрямую с обсуждавшимися темами. Выступления делегатов России и Аргентины вызвали оживленный обмен мнениями, выразившийся в принятых резолюциях: правительствам стран демократии переходного периода было предложено начать или активно продолжать процесс либерализации доступа в архивы; ЮНЕСКО и МСА рекомендовано разработать программу выявления и сохранения полицейских архивов периода репрессий в Латинской Америке, а правительствам этих государств - организовать передачу указанных документальных комплексов в государственные архивы. После выступления представителя Эфиопии стало проявляться беспокойство о сохранении древних рукописей в Африке, по этому поводу была принята резолюция. Также МСА было рекомендовано усилить работу с целью защитить и облегчить доступ к документам, собранным организациями защиты прав человека, предваряя, тем самым, следующее заседание СИТРА.

До начала заседаний во французскую прессу и корреспондентам основных иностранных газет во Франции были направлены рабочие материалы конференции. Для прессы был организован прием, на конференции присутствовало несколько журналистов, но, как и следовало ожидать, их больше интересовало положение во французских архивах, чем обсуждавшиеся на заседаниях вопросы. Все же на волнах государственного радио Франс-Культур из Марселя была организована полуторачасовая программа, в которой приняли участие президент и секретарь СИТРА, директор Национального архива Франции и три участника конференции, выбранные журналистами в соответствии с темами их выступлений и вызванным ими интересом: российские архивы, устная традиция, запросы жертв диктаторского режима в Аргентине. Видимо, обсуждение вопросов усиления роли архивов в обществе не смогло заинтересовать прессу в полной мере. Тематика 37 заседания СИТРА "Архивы и права человека", напротив, должна будет привлечь их полное внимание. В том числе, исходя из этого, бюро СИТРА именно так сформулировало тему обсуждения, предпочтя ее более широко поставленному в Севилье вопросу:

"Архивы на службе общества".

Секретарь СИТРА
Перрин Канаваджо

1 Тексты опубликованы на выбранном их авторами языке, включая английский, французский или испанский. На веб-сайте МСА можно ознакомиться с краткими изложениями текстов на английском и французском языках, которые были распространены в Марселе.

2 Обобщения первых результатов этого исследования были присланы в МСА 12 ноября, накануне открытия конференции, что не позволило представить их в Марселе.

3 Как в 2001 году, была разработана вторая категория резолюций, названных "профессиональными", с целью конкретизации работы СИТРА.

Hennadii Boriak

Users and their Demands in a Country in Transition: Ukraine

The optimization of state-building alongside the current transformation process in Ukraine have resulted in the demand for a clear vision about, and identification of, the precise place of archives' place in society and how they are perceived by that society. Ukraine is one of the largest Post-Soviet States (CIS). Its renaissance as a state dates from 1991 when the USSR collapsed as a superpower. For Ukraine, this turning point symbolised the crushing of the Soviet totalitarian system, the gradual adoption of democratic standards, and the beginning of the construction of civil society.

State orientation and ideologisation of the archives were very peculiar to the totalitarian period. Their activities were completely dependant on the demands of the Communist Party "nomenklatura". After 1991, the archives lost these ideological functions. Now, practical activity depends solely upon the demands of society. However, this situation has created new problems: firstly, these demands are being formulated in an unplanned way; and secondly, the archives are not ready to satisfy them. As a consequence, there is some disharmony: society does not have its demands fully satisfied, and in turn the archives are dissatisfied with society's undervaluing of their increasing activity. There are financial problems, in particular about archivists' salaries which are inadequate for their social functions, tasks and reputation as keepers of society's memory. The same lack of resources is evident in their poor working conditions, insufficient provision of modem IT equipment, and inadequate material and technical resources.

As a result of sociological study conducted in archival searchrooms, we came to the conclusion that, in general, the public's opinion of archives is of a dual nature. On one hand, archives are places for keeping piles of useless paper; but on the other hand, they are necessary institutions that must provide enquirers with responses to their urgent information requests. The transition period has brought four categories of users to the archives: intellectuals (or scholars), civil servants, politicians, and the general public.

The results of this survey need some explanation. The problem is that the archives in Ukraine arc set into the system of state central and local government bodies and thus have dual functions: on one hand, they are the administrative body for record-keeping; on the other hand they are centres for the keeping and use of retrospective information. This causes a certain attitude to the archives on the part of the state administration which directly manage them, and of politicians who are afraid of using the archival information in the interests of the party in power, in the context of a considerable politicisation of public life in Ukraine.

We should also take into account the fact that the last 50 years and more have been the period of historical justice restoration, rehabilitation and compensatory damage to the victims of totalitarian regimes (Soviet and Nazi). As a result several million Ukrainian citizens and foreigners have applied to archives for their documentation of such persecution. Though the national archival fonds suffered considerably after World War II, the majority of applicants received such documentation. The very fact the archives' social significance developed to such extent surely contributed to their positive image.

However, all this activity also gave rise to some groundless expectations about the archives. Thus a section of society expects they will receive an answer immediately; they expect the archives to satisfy any request concerning historical information. But in reality Ukrainian archivists have to look through piles of papers by hand to find the necessary information. It makes the whole procedure of archival searching more difficult, slower and more expensive.

Archivists established their closest relationships with the first category of users -scholars. This can be explained by the fact that scholars are traditional, long-term users of the Archives. As a rule they are highly educated people, working for academic degrees, authors of academic works and with the required professional and educational level to carry out independent work with archival documents. But nowadays, despite the traditional nature and content of their work in the archives they too are demanding an increase of methods of searching archives, electronic access and that the archives are equipped with modem computers.

To understand this situation one should bear in mind that while there are no problems with physical access, the same cannot be said about intellectual access. For example:

Social structural changes have had an effect on the research subjects of these traditional users. During the Soviet period they were more interested in the modern history of Ukraine, especially the post-war period and almost present-day history; now they are going deeper into the history of the nineteenth and the first years of the twentieth centuries, taking interest in the events of 1917-1921, 1930s and 40s - the period of national liberation movements of the Ukrainian people. But because during the Soviet period the holdings for these periods were not consulted very much, and most of them were classified, search tools for them are far from being informative and exhaustive at the necessary level. In general these changes to researchers' timeframes and subject-matter are a characteristic feature of a transient society, but they caught Ukrainian archives quite unawares and require appropriate additional effort.

One more new issue concerned with scholar-users, is their growing number. Current developments mainly in social sciences in Ukraine require most scholars to work with archival documents; the same is observed while they prepare academic monographs and other research. Unlike previous totalitarian times, when it was enough for the humanities scholar to show his or her allegiance to historical party dogmas, nowadays the resource base for the majority of humanities researchers has become an archival one. It should be emphasised once again that these substantive changes came upon the archives suddenly. Neither equipment and capacity of reading rooms, nor the quality and content of search tools meets the constantly growing requirements of these users and it raises, fairly, their complaints.

Civil servants are not an absolutely new category of archival information users. Quite the contrary, in times of totalitarism the archives, which were a part of People's Commissariat/Ministry of Internal Affairs, had to service mostly administrative establishments, frequently providing retrospective information, from the provision of information to penal establishment to carrying out the inquisitional processes. But during the period of democratic transformation great changes have occurred for this category of users. The legislative base of archives (namely, Laws "On Information", "On National Archival Fond and Archival Institutions", "On Rehabilitation of Victims of Political Repressions", as well as the draft law "On Personal Data Security") neatly regulate the structure and character of archival documents, in respect to which archivists should be a kind of "gatekeeper" (according to American archivist and librarian Matthias Lane), irrespective of any political affiliation.

The peculiarities of the organisation of the Ukrainian archival system, mentioned above, especially the fulfilment of immediate administrative-managerial functions by the Archives, significantly complicate this process. Moreover, the process of the archives in gaining such status was achieved step by step. The starting point was 1988, when regions liquidated administrative bodies - archival departments of regional administrations, and in spite of that they became a part of regional governing bodies. In 1996 a section of regional archives officers received the official status of state employees. And finally, in 2003 central archives receive the same status. Archives at the lowest level were earlier attached to the structure of local executive authorities, and later to local government bodies. Thus, in 2003, the process of the archives' integration into the structure of public authorities and local government bodies is completed once and for all.

Such a model of interrelationships between governing bodies and the archives seems to be absolutely unique, and not only within the CIS. We detect some positive aspects here. Their administrative status should help the archives solve the problem of automation, their technical equipment, the construction of new archives' buildings and so on. In providing informational and administrative services to the authorities, the archives have the daily opportunity to prove in practice their social importance and unique value of the information held to solve immediate administrative tasks. That is why there is a chance that the archives' image as far as administrators are concerned will be changed - from a storehouse of useless paper, serving only a small interested group of intellectuals, to a leading establishment for information provision.

Politicians are a completely new category of archival information users. Since the Soviet system admitted only the one party - a state one, the Communist Party, the rest of citizens, who did not accept its dogmas were considered to be dissidents. They had no access to the archives. At the beginning of the democratic transformation of Ukrainian society a rather multifarious political system was formed - at present there are more than 100 political parties, and officially registered public organisations range from Communists to Christian Democrats, from supporters of Ukraine's integration into Russia to Ukrainian ultranationalists.

However, it is worth mentioning that, regardless of certain extremes of political struggle in Ukraine over the last 12 years, archival information was not used even once for "dirty" PR, e.g. discrediting former members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Unlike modem information ("Melnichenko's films", information about business activities during the 1990's and so on), facts from the former Communist Party's archives have never been used by the opposition for discrediting present-day statesmen, and most of them (including our first and current Presidents) were, in their time, members of leading Communist Party bodies. This may be explained by the absence of official legal processes against the Communist Party (banned in 1991), as well as - to some extent - by specific features within Ukrainian mentality, such as patience, political inactivity and a forgiving nature.

Moreover, setting the archives into the state machinery, as noted above, has caused contradictions. The Archives of the Communist Party contained a lot of information, sometimes untrue, but always documented, about activists of dissident movements -representatives of national opposition. Theoretically there was the possibility of using these so-called "discreditable" materials against them, since documents of the Communist Party, when handed to the state archives, were practically all unclassified, and since then their access has been limited only by requirements of the Law "On Information", concerning personal data security. But this has not happened, and this demonstrates once again the good performance of Ukrainian archivists as "gatekeepers".

Archives in Ukraine are trying to co-operate in gathering and keeping the documents of all existing political parties. A striking example of this is the Central State Archives of public associations of Ukraine. Among its informational partners are: the Communist Party of Ukraine, the Socialist and Social-democratic parties, the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists, the Popular Movement (Narodny Rukh) of Ukraine and so on. Different exhibitions of archival documents, reference texts and documentary publications are dedicated to the history of these parties and party life in general. Among the recent editions are "3rd congress of CP(b)U" and the last volume of "Chronicles of UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ukrainska Povstancha Armiia)".

At the same time the appearance of political figures as a new category of archival information users presents archivists with some difficult tasks since these people do not always realise the necessity of saving documents created by them, or at least taking any necessary actions in that direction. That is why there is a real danger of losing part of the resources for the modem period of political life of Ukraine. The archives have launched a project to work with parties, trying to convince them of necessity of saving their documents, if not at a state archives, then at least at within the modem archives of parties and public associations, which would operate under the organisational and methodical control of the state archives.

Finally, the last category of archival information users - the general public - is also not absolutely new for the archives. But the deluge of inquiries over the last 10 years, seeking social-legal assistance for victims of both totalitarian regimes was totally unexpected. The inquiries were from real elderly and not very healthy people - victims of political repressions of Stalin's regime in 1930s-1950s, representatives of entire nations deported (Crimean Tatars). There were also victims of Nazi persecutions in 1939-1945 (prisoners of concentration camps, ghetto, forced labourers taken to Germany and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe in 1942-1944). Overall between 1991 and 2002 archives received more than two million such inquiries, most of them answered completely - and in time - by archivists. Owing to information provided by the Archives compensation payments were made to those suffered under Stalin, as well as to Nazi victims, by the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria. This amounts to of several million dollars, so one can understand the feelings of those people, whose inquiries to archives were ultima ratio in their hope of receiving, in their old age, a a fair compensation for the sufferings they endured. An important event was that the Archives of Ukraine started to create their database on these categories of documents. The state archives of Donetsk and Kharldv regions were the first to create such databases which allowed them to find quickly the necessary information about the persecution of Ukrainian citizens and foreigners by totalitarian regimes and to bring it to the notice of interested parties.

Another demand beyond that of the requests of Nazi victims - who undoubtedly deserve to be the first in line - comes from the rapidly increasing number of genealogical researchers, a completely new category of users in Ukrainian archives. Often, archivists are able to assist genealogists. Frequently, such users become "friends of the archives." providing them with technical and personal assistance. Probably this group will become the main one in the near future. This may cause serious problems for archivists if they are not prepared to provide them (or themselves too) with the appropriate tools for access to archival holdings.

In our opinion, the automation of the archives is the answer to all these challenges. According to the results of an investigation at the beginning of the 21st century, about 100 subject and registration databases were functioning at four central and 14 regional archives, state sectional archives and the archival establishments of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. At the majority of regional state archives the conversion of available registration databases was started. The order of the day is the creation of a single information system "Archival fonds of Ukraine", an on-line nationwide catalogue with remote access, which will contain information about 200,000 fonds making up the National Archival Fonds, including documents from former party archives, penal-repression bodies, as well as archival collections of museums and libraries.

The preparation of certain segments of fonds catalogues at state archives to a common conceptual, methodological and technological-program standard will allow us to create, in the future, a modem information system which will cardinally change the appearance of Ukrainian archives. It will allow users to select necessary information on-line, and archivists will be able to prepare lists, guides, fonds registers and documents at a high level. The creation of such reference works is now a strategic way of developing the Ukrainian archival system. During Soviet times, finding aids which explained the structure and content of archival fonds were considered to be of restricted use, had a small circulation and were not distributed, for instance, abroad. That is why it is no wonder that the best information source about Ukrainian Archives was a book by American researcher Patricia K. Grim-stead, published in 1988. Only after 1991 was there change - restrictions were lifted finding aids, and they (mostly in the form of microfilms) appeared abroad.

In order to satisfy growing requirements for archival finding aids especially at those archives which have never had them (the Archives of the Communist Party, state archives in border regions), the program for preparing the reference texts "Archival repositories of Ukraine" was developed and approved in 2000. It resulted in a new generation of archival guides with full lists of fonds, without any exclusions - Guides to the Central State Archives of public associations of Ukraine (former Party Archives), Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine in Lviv, the State Archives of Chemigiv and Sumy regions, a series of finding aids at inter-fonds and fonds levels, a special work on the system of scientific-reference machinery of Ukrainian Archives. The first volume of a guide to the Central State Archives-Museum of Literature and Arts of Ukraine, guides to others, including regional, archives, as well as to departmental archives such as the Ministry of Internal Affairs, previously absolutely closed, were prepared. A completely new type of finding aid might be a series of Annotated registers of inventories of fonds which is intended to provide detailed information about documents from the Ukrainian Archives not at fonds level, but at the lower levels. The main principles in preparing the new generation of tools is complete openness, and that they are of a systematic and serial nature.

The only way to respond to all the above-mentioned challenges and develop genuine public policy in Ukraine is to change the image of archives in the eyes of society, raise the status of the profession, to make possible full automation in the archives and the preparation of a modem generation of comprehensive archival finding aids both in electronic and in traditional book formats. To my mind, meeting these problems "with open eyes" is the best way to find efficient solutions.

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